Periodontitis, also known as gum disease, is a serious condition that affects the gums and underlying structures of the teeth. This condition occurs when bacteria in the oral cavity multiply and cause an inflammatory reaction. If periodontitis is not treated, it can lead to serious damage to the gums, jawbone and eventually tooth loss.

One of the main causes of periodontitis is the buildup of plaque, a sticky layer of bacteria that forms on the tooth surface. If plaque is not removed regularly by brushing and flossing teeth, it can harden into tartar, which is more difficult to remove and contributes to inflammation in the gums. The body’s immune system responds to this bacterial invasion by causing an inflammatory response, resulting in redness, swelling and bleeding of the gums. This stage of gum disease is known as gingivitis.

If gingivitis is not treated adequately, it can develop into periodontitis. At this stage, the inflammation spreads deeper into the gums and begins to attack the jawbone. Symptoms may worsen, including gum recession, the formation of pockets between the teeth and gums, and possibly pus formation. In addition, periodontitis can lead to tooth loss, which has serious implications for oral health and overall quality of life.

Several factors contribute to the development of periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene is a major risk factor, as failure to adequately clean teeth and floss regularly promotes plaque accumulation. Smoking is also strongly associated with an increased risk of periodontitis because it reduces blood supply to the gums and affects the body’s ability to fight inflammation. Other risk factors include genetics, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as during pregnancy and menopause) and certain medications.

Treatment of periodontitis focuses on reducing inflammation, repairing damaged tissue and preventing further damage. In mild cases, professional cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist may be enough to reduce inflammation and make gums healthier. In advanced cases, surgical intervention may be required to clean deeper pockets and repair damaged bone tissue.

However, prevention is the key to preventing periodontitis. Daily oral hygiene routines, including regular brushing and flossing, are essential to remove plaque and prevent its formation. Regular dental checkups are also very important because dentists can detect and treat periodontitis at an early stage before it becomes more serious.

In addition to good oral hygiene and regular dental visits, healthy eating habits and avoiding tobacco products can reduce the risk of periodontitis. It is also important to keep risk factors, such as diabetes, well controlled and seek regular medical advice.

In conclusion, periodontitis is a serious condition that requires attention and care to prevent tooth loss and other complications. The importance of prevention, including regular oral hygiene and dental checkups, cannot be overemphasized. A healthy mouth is essential not only for maintaining a radiant smile, but also for maintaining overall health and well-being.

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